Google Scholar

Google Scholar
Google Scholar logo 2015.PNG
Type of site
Bibliographic database
Owner Google
Registration Optional
Launched November 20, 2004; 13 years ago (2004-11-20)
Current status Active

Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines. Released in beta in November 2004, the Google Scholar index includes most peer-reviewed online academic journals and books, conference papers, theses and dissertations, preprints, abstracts, technical reports, and other scholarly literature, including court opinions and patents.[1] While Google does not publish the size of Google Scholar's database, third-party researchers estimated it to contain roughly 160 million documents as of May 2014[2] and an earlier statistical estimate published in PLOS ONE using a Mark and recapture method estimated approximately 80–90% coverage of all articles published in English with an estimate of 100 million.[3] This estimate also determined how many documents were freely available on the web.

Google Scholar is similar in function to the freely available CiteSeerX and getCITED. It also resembles the subscription-based tools, Elsevier's Scopus and Clarivate Analytics' Web of Science. Google Scholar has been criticized for not vetting journals and including predatory journals in its index.[4]

  1. ^ "Search Tips: Content Coverage". Google Scholar. Google. Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  2. ^ Orduña-Malea, E., Ayllón, J. M., Martín-Martín, A., & Delgado López-Cózar, E. (2015). Methods for estimating the size of Google Scholar. Scientometrics104(3), 931–49. ArXiv
  3. ^ Trend Watch (2014) Nature 509(7501), 405 – discussing Madian Khabsa and C Lee Giles (2014) The Number of Scholarly Documents on the Public Web, PLOS ONE 9, e93949.
  4. ^ Kolata, Gina (30 October 2017). "Many Academics Are Eager to Publish in Worthless Journals". Retrieved 2 November 2017 – via 

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